Saturday, January 14, 2017

HOW TO STEAL AN AUDI

HOW TO STEAL AN AUDI, VOLKSWAGEN, SEAT OR SKODA

Gone are the days when car thieves could slim-jim a car's door, jam a screwdriver into the ignition lock and turn it with force to start the car, or alternatively cut the ignition wires and hot wire the car, and off they go. In most cases stolen cars are seldom recovered, forcing Insurance Companies to hike their premiums. Lobbying  on their part, and government efforts to reduce car theft, resulted that immobilizer and alarm systems started appearing as standard features in most cars.  I believer that it's now mandatory for all new cars sold within the European Union to have an electronic engine immobilizer installed.

IMMOBILIZER


An immobilizer acts as an anti-theft device that inhibits the car's engine from starting, unless the correct ignition key or additional electronic deactivation device is present. This concept makes hot wiring a car totally futile. If the code received from the key is incorrect or missing, the ECU disables the system until the correct key is placed in the ignition, and or the correct key code  is presented, which will allow the car to start. Such electronic devices operate  automatically and effectively prevents thieves from starting a car by hot wiring it, thus incentivising auto Insurance Companies to offer lower rates for vehicles equipped with these anti-theft devices. Be that as it may. Are immobilizers "secure" enough? Especially considering that it only reduced car theft by an estimated 40%. 


Transponder chips used in automotive immobilizer systems
Currently, electronic chips,  algorithms and data encryption systems are used to protect cars from theft. And since its inception, the electronics industry members have had ways of marking their micro chips. In most cases, with  an alpha numeric marking and perhaps a logo. Texas chips had a tiny map of Texas, Motorola had their classic M, Phillips  had an emblem composed of a globe with a doubly wavy equator with two stars in each hemesphere. There were also several other electronic chip manufacturers many of them specializing in specific equipment. But today Philips and Texas Instruments dominates the fob key transponder market with their immobilizer chips. Legacy key manufactures like JMA and Silca each formed in-house electronics departments that specifically focuses on transponder technology and vigarously compete for market share. Then there is also Sokymat, Temic, NXT, Megamos, etc, providing anti-theft transponder / immobilizer electronic devices for keys.
Turbo Key Decoder can unlock any VAG car in just 3 minutes.

A VW 3 button remote fob key fitted with a transponder and a miniature electronic circuit board essentially broadcasts an encrypted radio signal to the receiver fitted in the car's steering column, at the exact moment the driver starts the vehicle. If the signal is recognized by the receiver and the handshake is successful, it then responds by sending an encrypted signal to the car's engine control unit (ECU), enabling the car's engine to start. In Volkswagen vehicles, the miniature electronic circuit board in the fob key handles central lock/unlock and alarm activation which normally operates on the 433Mhz (UHF) frequency band, but some models  operate on either  315MHz or at 868MHz frequency band. 

Volkswagen, Audi and Seat only uses two key blade profiles, namely HU66 and HU49 on both their flat and flip keys, whereas the Skoda uses both HU66 HU49 and SK22 blade profiles. The blades and profiles are visible in the image below which can easily be decoded with a Turbo key decoder or a cheaper Lishi decoder, aka Master Key-Set for VAG for the relevant blade profile.


Volkswagen. Audi, Seat and Skoda key blade profiles.
The intricacy starts with the numerous transponders used in Volkswagen, Audi, Seat and Skoda which varies from the PHILIPS ID33 Transponder, to the PHILIPS Crypto ID42 Transponder, to the PHILIPS Crypto ID44 Transponder, to the PHILIPS Crypto ID46 Transponder,  to the MEGAMOS  ID13  Transponder and MEGAMOS Crypto  ID48  Transponder; to the Silca and JMA equivalents. Some  precoded  Megamos Crypto transponders can be coded from the VIN using the appropriate equipment, like the AD100Pro.


Megamos Crypto ID48 transponder (glass)
Having said appropriate equipment; immobilizers according to most of us are  "secure" but research hackers have found vulnerabilities in the engine immobilizers algorithm / encryption system that is supposed to protect the vehicle from theft.  Apparently said hacker hacked one of the most popularly used immobilizers  within a mere 6 hours.  He then released a white paper "Wirelessly Lockpicking a Vehicle Immobilizer" but was gagged by the High Court of London with an interim injunction from releasing his scientific article for public consumption. 

The following is an actual cryptographic hash (SHA-512) 

9d05ba88740499eecea3d8609174b444
43683da139f78b783666954ccc605da8
4601888134bf0c23ba46fb4a88c056bf
bbb629e1ddffcf60fa91880b4d5b4aca


Silicon chip transponder

What this means is that the current 48 bit encryption systems used by most car manufacturers can be easily cracked. The rolling code Hitag2  system used by Alfa Romeo, Chevrolet, Citroen, Dacia, Fiat, Ford, Lancia, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Opel, Peugot and Renault has been crack several years ago and is not secure. A 48 bit system is fractionally secure compared to the 128 bits Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) used for computer data systems which could take more than a 100 years to crack with a Quantum Super Computer. To add doom to gloom, several key decoders and key duplicators are available on the open market and you don't have to be a certified locksmith to be able to buy it, though they is quite expensive. 


"The mechanical turbo decoder can unlock any
 Audi, Volkswagen, Seat or Seat 
within 3 minutes flat".

Once the key is duplicated, the doors can be unlocked  and turning on the ignition is just as simple.  Starting the vehicles is slightly more intricate but still doable. Silca and JMA supplies systems that can do exactly that in just a few minutes. Optika, Lector and Lector Pro reads the code from the key and generates the required code.
What this means, is  that it now easier to steal a car with a manufacturer fitted immobilizer than a car with an anti theft gorilla bar attached to its steering.

Car Steering Wheel Theft proof Lock - Auto Anti-theft Retractable Lock
Laser key cutting machines  and key duplicating machines are as popular as diagnostic scanner software and it is really easy to use. I suppose its just a matter of time before crime syndicates  invest in these devices to further ply their "trade". Looks like Gorilla bars are back in vogue.

Thursday, January 5, 2017

VOLVO IS NO LONGER SWEDEN'S BEST SELLING CAR

VOLVO IS NO LONGER SWEDEN'S BEST SELLING CAR

It was just announced that the Volkswagen  Golf won car of the year in Sweden for year 2016. And yes, it's the  very Scandinavian country where the iconic Volvo brand topped car sales each and every consecutive year for the past 54 years . However, for the very first time in history or Volvo or rather more exactly the same number of  years, the German designed and manufactured VW Golf outsold the Swedish manufactured Volvo in 2016.  Volkswagen Golf's accounted for almost 6% of all new cars sold, whereas the combined sales of Volvo’s V70, S90 and V90 only  constituted a mere 5.7%. But this event of Volkswagen beating Volvo at sales is not entirely unique because it happened once before. Way back in 1962, the humble Volkswagen Beetle knocked Volvo off the top selling spot by outselling Volvo. Be that as it may, Volvo still retains the largest share of the Swedish Car market, sanding at roughly 22 percent, with Volkswagen in a close second position with approximately 16 percent market share.


The smokey Ford Kuga is on fire, literally!

Despite the fallout from its diesel emissions scandal, with its cheating  device, Volkswagen AG as a whole is bouncing back, regaining market confidence after  their pledge to focus on electric power in the coming years. VW Golf is Sweden's top seller and currently their most popular car.  The VW Golf sales are  closely followed by VW Passat as the fifth most popular car, followed by VW Polo as the eight most popular car, followed by the Skoda Octavia as Sweden's tenth most popular car.

Volvo has always been known to be a "very safe car" but the Swedes have lost their national pride when Chinese firm "Zhejiang Geely Holding Group" bought the  iconic Swedish brand —Volvo — in 2010. This is probably the real reason why Volkswagen is gaining ground in Sweden? 

"Talking about safe cars or rather unsafe cars. 
The fiery Ford Kuga and the fiery Ford Everest 
are probably the unsafest cars 
on the roads today".

Ford motor company has contacted all Kuga owners by post, urging them to book their fiery Kuga's into their workshops for a free maintenance check, but not explaining the urgency of the matter. No sooner have they done this, when four more Ford Kuga's burst into flames during the same amount of days. According to Ford, it appears that the issue is limited to their 1.6-litre EcoBoost engine but according to owners somehow their Everest is also affected. About a year ago a Ford Kuga driver was  burnt beyond recognition in Durban,  and to-date as many as 40 Kuga fiery incidents have been reported.


1) Ford Kuga owner leaps from burning vehicle in Durban.
2) A PE family is in shock when their Ford Kuga burst into flames.

3) Husband and wife watched their Kuga burnt out.

A all new Kuga hot-rod in full glory
Kuga with frostbite after bursting into flames
A fiery Ford Kuga making like a Volcano
Peculiarly most of the burnt-out Kugas are white in colour.
If it wasn't for the Original Ford Kuga Mag, this burnt out stack could easily
have been mistaken for a Volkswagen vehicle.
Virtually unrecognizable but is definitely a Kuga
From Ford to ashes and from Ford to dust.
It looks like a volcanic eruption but it's really a Ford Kuga
Ford Kuga front-end totally destroyed
However owner reports say that Fords bursting into flames is not limited to the Ford Kuga  EcoBoost Ambiente but rather prevalent on Ford Everest 3.0 SUV as well.  Ford motor company is facing a huge backlash and a potential class-action lawsuit over Kuga fires because Ford Kuga vehicles owners across South Africa are proressively growing concerned over the spontaneously combustion of their vehicles. Yet Ford Motor Company is still trying to dodge burning issue of recalling their Kuga range. The issue that VW went through during its emission scandal is going to be pale in comparison to what awaits Ford Motor Company because there was loss of life. The pics below are just some of the Ford Kugas that were engulfed in flames.


Ford Kuga making like a chimney
 A completely Toasted Ford Kuga
A Ford Kuga imitating a cable.

Fortunately, and all thanks to God, that Volkswagen vehicles don't burst into flames as often as Ford Kuga's do. Below are some pics of Volkswagen vehicles that suffered the same fate as the cars above.

1) A Volkswagen Polo on fire in Bo-kaap, Cape Town
2) A Volkswagen Polo Vivo caught alight outside the Punjab National Bank in India.
3) A VW Polo hosed down by its owner.


A VW Polo caught alight on the south bound R102 in KwaZulu Natal 
A VW Jetta completely engulfed in flames in Verulam-KwaZulu Natal. 
A VW Polo taking time out.

In a certain sense  every car is a potential  / ticking time bomb, considering it is propelled by highly a inflammable liquid like petrol, or diesel,  or LP gas in the presence of engine oil, and other combustible materials like cloth, foam, pleather, rubber, PVC and paint. With a battery powered high current electrical system capable of igniting electrical fires, through arcing or an electrical short circuits acting as a trigger. And Fuel spillage from a burst pipe on a hot engine presenting another trigger amongst others. This can be equated to storing a box of matches with the gunpowder in the same keg, whiles we rolling on it. 

However, if safety standards are observed to the hilt, accidents will be reduced to an absolute minimum. Case in point, the Samsung S7 with its overheating and self-combusting properties has causes many a house to burn down and likewise many a car has caused its driver severe injuries some of whom burn to death.

Wednesday, December 14, 2016

VCDS

VCDS

Over the past few years, I've often referred to VCDS and diagnostic scans in my blogs. For the life of me, it never dawned on me that the vast majority of Volkswagen, Audi, Seat and Skoda  vehicle owners have  no idea what it is, have never heard of VCDS, let alone know what it does. Some has never even seen a diagnostic scan of their own car. I sincerely apologize for the confusion it may have caused.  So the rest of this installment will be devoted to explaining what VCDS is, specifically for the benefit of the masses. But before I do so. I need to sketch a picture as to why car manufacturer are obligated by law to  install on-board diagnostic OBD systems into each and every car they manufacture. 



As long ago as 1946 the State of California realized that automotive vehicles significantly contributed to the rising levels of air pollution, and passed legislation to establish air quality emission standards for motor vehicles. It is noteworthy, that the very first Volkswagen emission controlled engine was in fact the 1963 Type I VW Beetle engine. It employed a system known as Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) to control its crankcase emissions.  During the 1970's the the United States Environmental Protection Agency raised concerns over the general degradation of air quality, though they were especially concerned over the health and environmental impacts of NOx

NOx is an abbreviation that refers to the entire family of nitrogen oxides, among which are nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, nitrates, nitric oxide  and nitric acid . NOx is known to aggravate asthmatics, can cause lung tissue diseases and reduction in overall lung function. When NOx reacts with and sulfur dioxide and other substances in the air, it eventually comes down in the form of acid rain. Acid rain is damaging our vegetation  by reducing our crop yields substantaily. It also causes our lakes and streams to become acidic which is totally unsuitable to many varieties of fish, shellfish and other aquatic plants and animals. Nitrous oxide emissions also add to the already high level of greenhouse gas responsible for the gradual rise in the earth’s temperature  aka global warming. But that's, just touching the tip of the ice-berg, because the issue is much worse and of serious concern. In a nutshell the Federal and state Clean Air Act galvanized the rest of the world in the conciousness to reduce their carbon footprint. 

As a follow up to PCV of 1963, various parts of the automotive fuel and ignition systems were modified in an effort to reduce exhaust emissions. New systems were also added while existing systems were modified to reduce fuel tank, vent system, tailpipe and crankcase emissions. Electronics was introduced and CDI (capacitive discharge ignition) systems made their appearance and overtime technology further transformed the  four-stroke internal combustion engine. Carburetors and mechanical fuel injection gave way to hydraulic / electronic  fuel injection. Coils, points and condensors gave way to  contactless electronic ignition systems, introduced by Bosch. The Bosch D-Jetronic system was followed by Bosch  K-tronic then the Bosch Digifant. At some point  the electronic ignition system and the electronic fuel injection were combined and controlled by a Bosch  Motronic engine management system. 

The main objective of an engine management system is to accurately control the fuel flow and the ignition timing whilst keeping emissions to a minimum. Though various support systems are needed to make the combustion process occur continuously. For example, crank drives the valvetrain that operates the valves, the lubrication system pumps the oil to keep the engine from overheating, the cooling system reduces heat from the oil using the radiator and fan, and the electrical system supplies the voltage and current. This allows the engine management system to deliver fuel in correct quantity, and spark at the precise moment to match the air demands of the engine — the stoichiometric ratio.

All this technology with the help of the IEEE, led up to the  first generation OBD (On-board Diagnostics) that used Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) retrieval via blink code. During the successive years  legislation was  put into place, meanwhile OBD matured  and was superseded by the stringently modified OBD-II (On-board Diagnostics 2nd generation)  which has been around since 1996. In Europe OBD-II is known as EOBD-II and the emission scandal involving Volkswagen AG since 2014 revolves around them lying about the amount of CO2 emitted by their cars and for fitting a cheating device to some of their both diesel and petrol vehicles, that actually failed its 'readiness test'.

The Readiness test is essentially a group of eight (8) electronic monitors (circuits)  that oversees the correct functioning of various emission related components fitted into all modern day cars.  Each of these operational test needs to be within the legislated specification. When there is a problem with any one monitor, it will set a binary "1" in the readiness code. If there is no problem or it passes a test, it would set a binary "0" in the readiness code. Even though emission monitoring  was the imputus for OBD-II, it wasn't limited to emission monitoring. Since a computer ECU (electronic Control Unit) was needed to  oversee the emission monitors, it was expedient to put it to other uses as well, like engine management. 

As such, the electronic control unit (ECU) was renamed Engine Control Unit (ECU). The computing power of the ECU was underutilized, since its cost certainly wasn't justified by the 8 menial tasks of emission monitoring, so manufactures started adding bells and whistles and other creature comforts. The ECU increased from a 38 pin version to and 80 pin version in a matter of years. The ECU can store information and has a non-volatile memory where it stores the DTC (Diagnostic Trouble Codes) whenever it detects a problem. The ECU also has another  memory where it stores maps of the drivers driving peculiarities which can be erased when the battery is disconnected. The driver is also alerted when there is a problem by one or more instrument panel lights that turn on, or start to blink. When this happens a trouble code is stored which can assist the  mechanic in solving the problem.

The bells and whistles were so many that their control needed to be grouped and separated and the rest of the control modules were introduced. Hence ECU (Engine Control Module, TCM (Transmission Contol Module), ABS (Antilock Braking System) module conbined with  EDL(Electronic Differential Lock), ASR (Anti Slip Regulation) and  EDL (Electronic Differential Lock), Cental Electronics Module, Airbags Module, CAN Gateway Module, Instrument Module, Central Convenience Module, Seat Memory Module, Xenon  Module, Auto HVAC Module, Interior Monitor Module etc... These modules are also distributed throughout the car, sometimes placed in the most obscure place with very limited access and all these modules are also networked (interconnected) on a bus system  called CAN Bus. Individual modules have also been given some sort of intelligence (protocol) so that they can be interfaced with diagnostic equipment. To simplify,  it can be compared to  a land line telephone extension that can communicate with the switchboard using internal control codes. Each module has its "own telephone number" with the gateway module acting as the switchboard and when a diagnostic device is connected, it can communicate with the requested module via the gateway exchange. 

Having this glut of electronic modules on-board means a glut of sensors and a glut of actuators that accompany them; amongst which are the Engine Crank or Cam Position/Speed sensor, Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensor, the Throttle position, the Coolant Temperature (CLT) Sensor, the Throttle Valve Control Motor, the cooling fan motor (actuator), the Fuel Pressure Regulator (actuator), the Injectors (actuator), the ignition coil (actuator) and the Oxygen Sensor (O2S) (actuator), to mention but a few. With all these extra electronics devices that can go faulty or rather will go faulty at some time or the other,  they will need to be repaired  and since circuit board level repairs are done at a fairly high level, beyond the abilities of average auto technician, hobbyist mechanical or DIY car owner, module replacement is the only option. In order  to determine which component has gone faulty and which module is responsible for controlling it,  without some sort of diagnostic device is near to impossible. So as part of the OBD-II standard, was that vehicle manufactures were obliged to install a diagnostic port in the drivers cockpit area for such diagnostic equipment to interface with the Gateway Module. This port is called the DLC (Data Link Connector). And that's were the VCDS cable plugs into. The P codes can then be analysed / interpreted and the necessary repairs can be carried out.


SAMPLE SCAN

Chassis Type: 9N (9N - VW Polo (2002 > 2010))
Scan: 01 02 03 08 09 15 17 19 25 37 44 45 46 56 76

VIN: AAVZZZ9NZ8U0XXXXX   Mileage: 221080km/137372miles
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 01: Engine        Labels: None
   Part No SW: 03C 906 057 AK    HW: 03C 906 057 M
   Component: BOSCH ME7.5.20      0707
   Revision: 21H01---    Serial number: VWZ7Z0G555XXX
   Coding: 0000075
   Shop #: WSC 31414 000 00000
 
No fault code found.
Readiness: 0000 0000
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 02: Auto Trans        Labels: 09G-927-750.lbl
   Part No SW: 09G 927 750 GH    HW: 09G 927 750 GH
   Component: AQ 250 6F           0930
   Revision: 00H67000    Serial number:            
   Coding: 0000072
 
No fault code found.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 03: ABS Brakes        Labels: 6R0-907-37x-ABS80.lbl
   Part No SW: 6Q0 907 379 AF    HW: 6Q0 907 379 AF
   Component: ABS 8.0 front   H05 0002
   Revision: 00000000    Serial number: 00000000000000
   Coding: 0002292
 
No fault code found.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 08: Auto HVAC        Labels: 6Q0-820-045.lbl
   Part No: 6Q0 820 045
   Component: Klimaanlage        X0850
 
No fault code found.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 09: Cent. Elect.        Labels: 6Qx-937-049-C.lbl
   Part No: 6Q0 937 049 F
   Component: 0009 BN-SG.         2S36
   Coding: 17550
   Shop #: WSC 31414

No fault code found.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 15: Airbags        Labels: 6Q0-909-605-VW5.lbl
   Part No: 6Q0 909 601 F
   Component: 05 AIRBAG VW5       0010
   Coding: 12341
   Shop #: WSC 31414

No fault code found.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 17: Instruments        Labels: 6Q0-920-xxx-17.lbl
   Part No: 6Q0 920 825 P
   Component: KOMBIINSTRUMENT VDO V06
   Coding: 00141
   Shop #: WSC 31550

No fault code found.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 19: CAN Gateway        Labels: 6N0-909-901-19.lbl
   Part No: 6N0 909 901
   Component: 01K1 GATEWAY CAN    2S36
   Coding: 00015
   Shop #: WSC 31414
 
No fault code found.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 25: Immobilizer        Labels: 5J0-920-xxx-25.clb
   Part No: 6Q0 920 825 P
   Component: IMMOBILIZER VDO V06
   Coding: 00141
   Shop #: WSC 31550
 
No fault code found.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 44: Steering Assist        Labels: 6Q0-423-156.clb
   Part No: 6Q0 423 156 AB
   Component: LenkhilfeTRW        V270
   Coding: 10110
   Shop #: WSC 31414
 
No fault code found.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 45: Inter. Monitor        Labels: 6Q0-951-171.lbl
   Part No: 6Q0 951 171 C
   Component: Innenraumueberw.    0020
 
No fault code found.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 46: Central Conv.        Labels: 6Q0-959-433.lbl
   Part No: 6Q0 959 433 E
   Component: 67 Komfortger√°t     0002
   Coding: 00018
   Shop #: WSC 31414

No fault code found.

End   ---------------------------------------------------------------------


VCDS

VCDS is a hardware cable sold by Ross-tech governed by intellectual property rights. It pairs with their freely downloadable and regularly upgraded Windows based computer program  used to interrogate these on-board modules. This software provides a GUI with menus to scan the vehicle, view Fault Codes, Measuring Blocks and view VAG-Scope data. It also allows you to clear any Fault Codes, recode a module after  replacing it, log Data to a CSV file,  perform Basic Settings and Output Tests. And so much more. It is probably the most versatile tool to do any Volkswagen, Audi, Seat or Skoda repairs. Any auto workshop specializing in VW vehicles that doesn't have VCDS is at a loss even if  they have a Launch X431, or TOAD, or Autoboss V30, the MaxiDAS DS708, etc. VCDS is specific to VAG vehicles and personally I'm very impressed by its functionality, and I tip my hat to the Ross-Tech team.  

However, the "high price" of their cable has permitted several competitors to compete with them producing a clone cable that works with Ross-Tech software. I'm not saying that the price of the cable doesn't justify its capabilities but if the price was more manageable for non-USA based VW owners, virtually every VW, Audi Skoda Seat owner would feel obliged to invest in said cable and at the same time Ross-Tech will get rid of all the clone shysters. Being a US based company Ross-Tech wants payment in USD but the USD to ZAR is  currently sitting at 1:14 and I'm certain most VAG car owners paying in another currency that don't convert favorably with the USD may have similar reservations. Enough said, go get that cable!  


Monday, December 12, 2016

VW 9N HVAC

VW 9N HVAC PROBLEMS

There are hundreds if not thousands of VW owners who have had HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioner) problems, some are still having HVAC problems on a daily basis and those who haven't had HVAC trouble as yet, is sure to encounter them rather sooner than later.  These three functions are often combined into a single system in most modern vehicles and VW Polo 9N owners seemed to be  more affected by a failing HVAC system  than other VW owners in general.   If you've noticed your Polo 9N's temperature gauge misbehaving — randomly going up and down — but not reaching the required  90 deg, then you can expect your aircon/heater to go faulty. The problem with the HVAC is the poor quality of the two flat motors that control the flaps. Since the 9N Polo 2002-2009 are now ageing, thus out of warranty, we can expect more HVAC problems. Though in my opinion 9N HVAC problems should still be repaired under warranty, considering a car fan / air conditioner is only used for short burst at a time, a few times per day for roughly three month a year, so its collective millage is a far cry from the ceiling mounted fan at home that in some cases last a lifetime. Those fan motors just go on forever. But these motors don't spin constantly they only do while they open or closing a flap. Something like a throttle control flap motor.

Be that as it may, the need for a working climatic control system is upon us. For those in Europe or living above the tropic of cancer, it is almost imperative that your HVAC works because Winters can get quite cold up there. However, what's worse than getting cold? You guessed it, it's getting hot! In the Southern Hemisphere during mid summer, the inside of a car can reach or even exceed 50 degrees Celcius. That's the kind of heat very few people can handle without a HVAC. 

VW Polo 9N Air Heater Vent Flap Positioning Motor Square plug /
oval plug 6Q0 907 511 and oval plug 6Q0 907 511-A

HVAC problem are not limited to the temperature 'Flap motor (P/N 6Q0 907 511) and 'Recirculation Motor (P/N 6Q0 907 511C). There is also a fairly troublesome sensor (G65) attached to the  high pressure air hose, on the right side of the engine. The  Klimaanlage X0830 /X0840 / X0850 / Control Module 6Q0 820 045 is also notorious for giving up the ghost. When the Control Module goes faulty or goes offline, a VCDS scan often present an 'Internal Control Module Memory Error'. But before replacing the Control Module, check the wiring to and from the Control Module including the Voltage Supply and make certain there is a solid ground connection. The reason for the 'Internal Control Module Memory Error' is because the Gateway control module stored a checksum for all the on-board modules and when a module goes offline, the parity bit will be different from the stored one and presents itself as  'Internal Control Module Memory Error'. 


Air flow flap positioning motor V71
The problem with this, is that vehicle owners are temped to change the coding of one or more of their control modules just to see what happens. Very importantly, before we continue, I need to stress if you have an urge to do so, make certain that you have a full printout of all the coding values of all the control modules before changing anything. Failure to do so could render your VW Polo unusable because there is no guide or manual that specifically tells you which bit in the coding  does what. Trial and error can brick your car permanently. So take care!

The average HVAC fault can range from a 1 line fault to as many lines in the list below. Normally you would encounter 2 faults, 3 faults  or 4 faults, 5 or 6 faults, 7 or 8 faults at a time, all related to the same system.  When the HVAC goes faulty, it is common to have hot air blowing that cannot be turned down even though the temp control is set to cold (blue). It is just as common to get no warm air at all, even on maximum hot (red). The cause of the problem is the two motorized flaps in the heater system because both motors (V68) and (V154) are somewhat unreliable and tend to jam intermittently. The one motorized flap controls the heat and the other controls the amount fresh air entering the vents. The only way to fix this problem, is to replace both motors but doing so is a huge job because getting to the heater mechanism requires you to remove the dashboard, steering wheel, the airbags and of course the battery before commencing. It is better left for the VW agent but let me remind you that this repair doesn't come cheap.

Address 08: Auto HVAC        Labels: 6Q0-820-045.lbl
   Part No: 6Q0 820 045
   Component: Klimaanlage        X0830 / X0840  / X0850

00705 - Relay for Coolant Fan; Stage 1 (J279)
            31-00 - Open or Short to Ground
00819 - High Pressure Sensor (G65)
            07-00 - Signal too Low
00819 - High Pressure Sensor (G65)
            31-10 - Open or Short to Ground - Intermittent
01271 - Positioning Motor for Temperature Flap (V68)
            41-10 - Blocked or No Voltage - Intermittent
01271 - Positioning Motor for Temperature Flap (V68)
            30-10 - Open or Short to B+ - Intermittent
01271 - Positioning Motor for Temperature Flap (V68)
            29-10 - Short to Ground - Intermittent
01271 - Positioning Motor for Temperature Flap (V68)
            28-10 - Short to Plus - Intermittent
01299 - Diagnostic Interface for Data Bus (J533)
            79-00 - Please Check Fault Codes
01317 - Control unit in dash-J285
            79-00 - read data from memory
01596 - Motor for Outside/Recirculated Air Flap (V154)
            41-10 - Blocked or No Voltage - Intermittent
01596 - Motor for Outside/Recirculated Air Flap (V154)
            41-00 - Blocked or No Voltage
01596 - Motor for Outside/Recirculated Air Flap (V154)
            30-10 - Open or Short to Plus - Intermittent
01596 - Motor for Outside/Recirculated Air Flap (V154)
            30-00 - Open or Short to Plus
01596 - Motor for Outside/Recirculated Air Flap (V154)
            29-10 - Short to Ground - Intermittent
01596 - Motor for Outside/Recirculated Air Flap (V154)
            28-10 - Short to Plus - Intermittent
65535 - Internal Control Module Memory Error
            00-00 - -

There are also a few other motors that may go faulty amongst them are V70  (Central flap control motor) ,V71 ( Fresh/recirculating air flap motor) , V107 (Defroster flap control motor) and lastly V2 the fresh air blower motor.

Friday, December 9, 2016

VW CADDY PROBLEM

VW CADDY PROBLEM

My business partner recently bought a VW Caddy 1.6L for our Security / CCTV installation business, not the one with the passenger seats inside in the back but the commercial panel van type. It came with the rear swing door lock removed and permanently bolted shut with the rear windows sprayed black. The windscreen mounted rear view mirror was also missing, since it served no purpose because of the black rear windows. Other than that, the vehicle was in pretty good nick, oh! and except for the fact that the black door handles were faded towards white or rather, had faded areas where the vehicle user's fingers rubbed through the coating. This is first for me. I would have though Volkswagen would use black PVC for the actual handle than use  white PVC, then coat it black. 


Faded VW Caddy door handle.

I've always know "VW door handle" to be problematic since I have had personal experience with both my VW Golf I and VW Golf II. Many of you may relate to the instance when you pulled youe VW's door open and the handle came adrift and you had to stick you finger through the hole in the door and tug a flat metal lever to open it. Subsequently VW changed the style of the door handle or  rather it is now properly fixed to the door. However, the Caddy's door handles aren't faulty..... yet, just faded. 



Anyway, so after about 12 000 km she developed a engine mis but it was extremely intermittent and therefore difficult to pinpoint. Each mis probably lasted about 3 seconds, it just didn't last long enough to make a proper diagnosis. Unfortunately, my son went to view a VW Tiguan for purchase in another province and took my VCDS with him.  So we were flying blind and had to rely on common sense and good old mechanical experience. We speculated that it may be the spark plugs, but then again it could also have been the coil pack or perhaps not. The coil pack would make the entire vehicle shake, so speculation continued until we were alerted by a flickering  Electronic Stability Control (ESC) light. 


As can be seen, to get to the spark plugs is a bit of a mission.


We concluded that this may have  something to do with the rotation of the wheels or perhaps the ABS because if any one of the wheels slipped or shaved against a pavement, causing the ABS to loose count of the rotational wheel pulses, then an error may occur and trigger the Electronic Stability Control (ESC) light. After a day or two, the AFS light also turned on,  accompanied by the  Electronic Stability Control (ESC) light that now stayed on permanently. Suddenly the Caddy turned into a stubborn mule, it could move forward at a mule's pace yet it didn't matter how much you beat the accelerator, she would just splutter. It was time that we fix her.  But since there were two instrument panel light that came on almost simultaneously we needed to look at what was common to both circuits before we started replacing anything.  Much later we realized that they were completely unrelated and that both lights turning on simultaneously was purely coincidental. We found that the AFS light was triggered by one of the right front headlight bulbs that fused. We then solved that problem.  


View of the purple OBD-II plug and the VCDS adaptor inserted
Thus far we speculated on several things but the logical step was to eliminate the spark plugs — because plugs misfire — and thereafter perhaps the  electronic coil. Since the spark plugs are inaccessible unless the intake manifold is removed, we ended up doing just that. The four plugs were removed and we discovered they were of the wrong type, someone had already replaced them before. The ones we removed were the regular single spark type whereas the recommended spark plug for the VW Caddy is the twin spark type. After replacing all four plugs with the twin spark type, the instrument light turned off and the Volkswagen Caddy idled perfectly normal. It really wasn't worth trying to figure out which plug went to heaven because the cost of replacing them was much less than the value of time. When my son finally returned with my VCDS, I scanned the Caddy and dropped it in below per you perusal.  


Electronic Stability Control light and the AFS light
As can be seen the malfunctioning items below are highlighted which remained 'Red' on VCDS even after we completed the necessary repairs.  We then had to clear the DTC memory for the ECU to be updated because even though the repairs were done, the ECU didn't know. Thereafter their  status revered to OK and the Readiness passed, which can be view  right at the bottom!  The refrigerant pressure problem under Address 08: Auto HVAC remained but the levels are fine so I suspect an electrical problem. Talking about electrical problems, the blower fan was also faulty and didn't work on all setting, so after replacing the series resistor, the blower works just fine. I covered fan blowers in a previous blog but I just needed to add the pic below because the Caddy resistor looks somewhat different.




Chassis Type: 2K (1K0)
Scan: 01 03 08 09 15 16 17 19 25 44 56

VIN: WV1ZZZ2KZ7XXXXXXX

00-Steering Angle Sensor -- Status: OK 0000
01-Engine -- Status: Malfunction 0010
03-ABS Brakes -- Status: OK 0000
08-Auto HVAC -- Status: Malfunction 0010
09-Cent. Elect. -- Status: Malfunction 0010
15-Airbags -- Status: OK 0000
16-Steering wheel -- Status: Malfunction 0010
17-Instruments -- Status: OK 0000
19-CAN Gateway -- Status: OK 0000
25-Immobilizer -- Status: OK 0000
44-Steering Assist -- Status: OK 0000
56-Radio -- Status: OK 0000
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 01: Engine        Labels: 06A-906-033-BGU.lbl
   Part No: 06A 906 033 ES
   Component: SIMOS71 1.6l 2V     8720
   Revision: --H03---    Serial number: VWZ7Z0F7186813
   Coding: 0000071
   Shop #: WSC 35110 377 00190

4 Faults Found:
16414 - Oxygen (Lambda) Sensor B1 S1: Heating Circuit
            P0030 - 009 - Malfunction / Open Circuit
             Freeze Frame:
                    Bin. Bits: 00000100
                    Resistance: 16.38 kOhm
                    Voltage: 2.100 V
                    Load: 7.8 %

            P0301 - 006 -  - Intermittent
             Freeze Frame:
                    RPM: 3072 /min
                    Mass Air / Rev.: 403.3 mg/str
                    Temperature: 72.0°C
                    Lambda: 0.0 %
                    RPM: 2144 /min
                    Mass Air / Rev.: 92.7 mg/str
                    Temperature: 73.5°C
                    Lambda: 0.0 %

            P0201 - 009 -  - Intermittent
             Freeze Frame:
                    RPM: 640 /min
                    Mass Air / Rev.: 119.9 mg/str
                    Lambda Factor: 1.016
                    Bin. Bits: 00000000

17658 - Fuel Level too Low
            P1250 - 000 -
             Freeze Frame:

Readiness: 0110 0101
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 03: ABS Brakes        Labels: 1K0-907-379-MK70.lbl
   Part No: 1K0 907 379 P
   Component: ASR FRONT MK70      0105
   Coding: 0017106
   Shop #: WSC 35110 377

No fault code found.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 08: Auto HVAC        Labels: 1K0-820-047.lbl
   Part No: 2K0 820 047 AQ
   Component: Climatic PQ35   120 0606
    Shop #: WSC 00000 000

1 Fault Found:
00229 - Refrigerant Pressure
            002 - Lower Limit Exceeded
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 09: Cent. Elect. Labels: 1K0-937-049-21-B.lbl
   Part No:  1K0 937 049 AD
   Component: Bordnetz-SG     H52 2102
   Software Coding: 008C4F010004100057000000000000000009B1065C0000
   Shop #: WSC 35110 377

1 Fault Found:
00979 - Lamp for Low Beam; Right (M31)
            010 - Open or Short to Plus
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 15: Airbags Labels: 6Q0-909-605-VW52.lbl
   Part No:   6Q0 909 605 AH
   Component: 09 AIRBAG VW52  023 2400
   Coding: 0012345
   Shop #: WSC 35110 377

No fault code found.                  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 16: Steering wheel Labels: 1K0-953-549-MY8.lbl
   Part No:    1K0 953 549 AN
   Component: Lenks√§ulenmodul 636 0070
   Coding: 0000001
   Shop #: WSC 35110 377

No fault code found.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 17: Instruments Labels: 1K0-920-xxx-17.lbl
   Part No SW: 2K0 920 843 B HW: 2K0 920 843 B
   Component: KOMBIINSTRUMENT VDD 1612
   Revision: V0003000 Serial number: VWZ7Z0F7117651
   Coding: 0016101
   Shop #: WSC 04556  996

No fault code found.                
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 19: CAN Gateway Labels: 1K0-907-530-V2.clb
   Part No: 1K0 907 530 K
   Component: J533__Gateway   H04 0020
   Coding: 3D01034007007401
   Shop #: WSC 35110 377
                   
No fault code found.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 25: Immobilizer Labels: 1K0-920-xxx-25.clb
   Part No: 2K0 920 843 B
   Component: IMMO            VDD 1612
   Coding:
   Shop #: WSC 00000 000
                   
No fault code found.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 44: Steering Assist Labels: 1Kx-909-14x-44.clb
   Part No: 1K2 909 144 L
   Component: EPS_ZFLS Kl.140 H07 1806
   Shop #: WSC 35110 666

No fault code found.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address 56: Radio Labels: 1K0-035-1xx-56.lbl
   Part No: 1K0 035 186 T
   Component: Radio BVX 016 0023
   Coding: 0020200
   Shop #: WSC 35110 377

No fault code found.

End.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

00-Steering Angle Sensor -- Status: OK 0000
01-Engine -- Status: OK 0000
03-ABS Brakes -- Status: OK 0000
08-Auto HVAC -- Status: Malfunction 0010 (Suspect electrical fault since the level is correct)
09-Cent. Elect. -- Status: OK 0000
15-Airbags -- Status: OK 0000
16-Steering wheel -- Status: OK 0000
17-Instruments -- Status: OK 0000
19-CAN Gateway -- Status: OK 0000
25-Immobilizer -- Status: OK 0000
44-Steering Assist -- Status: OK 0000
56-Radio -- Status: OK 0000

Address 01: Engine        Labels: 06A-906-033-BGU.lbl
   Part No: 06A 906 033 ES
   Component: SIMOS71 1.6l 2V     8720
   Revision: --H03---    Serial number: VWZ7Z0F7186813
   Coding: 0000071
   Shop #: WSC 35110 377 00190

No fault code found.
Readiness: 1110 1101    (Readiness /faulty condition [above]: 0110 0101)